Montana Rules of Evidence


The Montana Rules of Evidence govern all proceedings in all courts in the state of Montana with the exceptions stated in the rules.  The rules with respect to privileges found in Article V apply at all stages of all actions, cases and proceedings.

The rules other than those with respect to privileges do not apply in situations such as:

  • Preliminary questions of fact;
  • Proceedings before grand juries;
  • Miscellaneous proceedings such as proceedings for extradition or rendition;; sentencing; dispositional hearings in youth court proceedings; granting or revoking probation or parole; issuance of warrants for arrest, criminal summonses and notices to appear, and search warrants; and proceedings with respect to release on bail or otherwise;
  • Summary proceedings; and
  • Ex parte matters and proceedings which are uncontested or nonadversary.

Table of Contents of Montana Rules of Evidence

TITLE 26 EVIDENCE    

   CHAPTER 10 MONTANA RULES OF EVIDENCE

    PART I GENERAL PROVISIONS

    Rule 100 Short title. 

    Rule 101 Scope. 

    Rule 102 Purpose and construction. 

    Rule 103 Rulings on evidence. 

    Rule 104 Preliminary questions of admissibility. 

    Rule 105 Limited admissibility. 

    Rule 106 Remainder of or related acts, writings, or statements. 

    PART II JUDICIAL NOTICE

    Rule 201 Judicial notice of facts. 

    Rule 202 Judicial notice of law. 

    PART III PRESUMPTIONS

    Rule 301 Presumptions in general. 

    Rule 302 Applicability of federal law in civil cases. 

    PART IV RELEVANCY AND ITS LIMITS

    Rule 401 Definition of relevant evidence. 

    Rule 402 Relevant evidence generally admissible; irrelevant evidence inadmissible. 

    Rule 403 Exclusion of relevant evidence on grounds of prejudice, confusion, or waste of time. 

    Rule 404 Character evidence not admissible to prove conduct, exceptions; other crimes; character in issue. 

    Rule 405 Methods of proving character. 

    Rule 406 Habit; routine practice. 

    Rule 407 Subsequent remedial measures. 

    Rule 408 Compromise and offers to compromise. 

    Rule 409 Payment of expenses. 

    Rule 410 Offer to plead guilty; nolo contendere; withdrawn plea of guilty. 

    Rule 411 Liability insurance. 

    PART V PRIVILEGES

    Rule 501 Privileges recognized only as provided. 

    Rule 502 Identity of informer. 

    Rule 503 Waiver of privilege by voluntary disclosure. 

    Rule 504 Privileged matter disclosed under compulsion or without opportunity to claim the privilege. 

    Rule 505 Comment upon or inference from claim of privilege. 

    PART VI WITNESSES

    Rule 601 Competency in general; disqualification. 

    Rule 602 Lack of personal knowledge. 

    Rule 603 Oath or affirmation. 

    Rule 604 Interpreters. 

    Rule 605 Competency of judge as witness.  

    Rule 606 Competency of juror as witness. 

    Rule 607 Who may impeach; party not bound by testimony. 

    Rule 608 Evidence of character and conduct of witness. 

    Rule 609 Impeachment by evidence of conviction of crime. 

    Rule 610 Religious beliefs or opinions. 

    Rule 611 Mode and order of interrogation and presentation; re-examination and recall; confrontation. 

    Rule 612 Writings used to refresh memory. 

    Rule 613 Prior statements of witnesses. 

    Rule 614 Calling and interrogation of witnesses by court. 

    Rule 615 Exclusion of witnesses. 

    PART VII OPINIONS AND EXPERT TESTIMONY

    Rule 701 Opinion testimony by lay witnesses. 

    Rule 702 Testimony by experts. 

    Rule 703 Basis of opinion testimony by experts. 

    Rule 704 Opinions on ultimate issue. 

    Rule 705 Disclosure of facts or data underlying expert opinion. 

    PART VIII HEARSAY 

    Rule 801 Definitions. 

    Rule 802 Hearsay rule. 

    Rule 803 Hearsay exceptions: availability of declarant immaterial. 

    Rule 804 Hearsay exceptions: declarant unavailable. 

    Rule 805 Hearsay within hearsay. 

    Rule 806 Attacking and supporting the credibility of declarant. 

    PART IX AUTHENTICATION AND IDENTIFICATION

    Rule 901 Requirement of authentication or identification. 

    Rule 902 Self-authentication. 

    Rule 903 Subscribing witness’ testimony unnecessary. 

    PART X CONTENTS OF WRITINGS, RECORDINGS, AND PHOTOGRAPHS

    Rule 1001 Definitions. 

    Rule 1002 Requirement of original. 

    Rule 1003 Admissibility of duplicates, copies of certain entries. 

    Rule 1004 Admissibility of other evidence of contents. 

    Rule 1005 Public records. 

    Rule 1006 Summaries. 

    Rule 1007 Testimony or written admission of party. 

    Rule 1008 Functions of court and jury

Montana Rules of Evidence