Pennsylvania Rules of Evidence


 The Pennsylvania rules of evidence govern proceedings in all courts of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania’s unified judicial system, except as otherwise provided by law.  These rules of evidence are adopted by the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania under the authority of Article V § 10(c) of the Constitution of Pennsylvania.  A principal goal of the rules of evidence is to construct a comprehensive code of evidence governing court proceedings in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.  However, the courts have not applied the law of evidence in proceedings such as preliminary hearings, bail hearings, grand jury proceedings, sentencing hearings, parole and probation hearings, extradition or rendition hearings, and others.  The Pennsylvania Rules of Evidence are not intended to supersede other provisions of law unless they do so expressly or by necessary implication.  The rules are also applicable in compulsory arbitration hearings, with specific exceptions relating to the admissibility of certain written evidence and official documents.

Table of Contents of Pennsylvania Rules of Evidence

RULES OF EVIDENCE  

    ARTICLE I. GENERAL PROVISIONS  

    Rule 101. Scope and citation of the rules 

    Rule 102. Purpose and construction 

    Rule 103. Rulings on evidence 

    Rule 104. Preliminary questions 

    Rule 105. Limited Admissibility 

    Rule 106. Remainder of related writings or recorded statements 

    ARTICLE II. JUDICIAL NOTICE 

    Rule 201. Judicial notice of adjudicative facts 

    ARTICLE III. PRESUMPTIONS 

    Rule 301. General rule 

    ARTICLE IV. RELEVANCY AND ITS LIMITS 

    Rule 401. Definition of “relevant evidence” 

    Rule 402. Relevant evidence generally admissible; irrelevant evidence inadmissible 

    Rule 403. Exclusion of relevant evidence on grounds of prejudice, confusion, or waste of time 

    Rule 404. Character evidence not admissible to prove conduct; exceptions; other crimes 

    Rule 405. Methods of proving character 

    Rule 406. Habit; routine practice 

    Rule 407. Subsequent remedial measures 

    Rule 408. Compromise and offers to compromise 

    Rule 409. Payment of medical and similar expenses 

    Rule 410. Inadmissibility of pleas, plea discussions and related statements 

    Rule 411. Liability insurance 

    Rule 412. Sex offense cases: Relevance of alleged victim’s past sexual behavior or alleged sexual predisposition … 

    ARTICLE V. PRIVILEGES 

    Rule 501. General rule 

    ARTICLE VI. WITNESSES 

    Rule 601. Competency 

    Rule 602. Lack of personal knowledge 

    Rule 603. Oath or affirmation 

    Rule 604. Interpreters 

    Rule 605. Competency of judge as witness 

    Rule 606. Competency of juror as witness 

    Rule 607. Impeachment of witness 

    Rule 608. Evidence of character and conduct of witness 

    Rule 609. Impeachment by evidence of conviction of crime 

    Rule 610. Religious beliefs or opinions 

    Rule 611. Mode and order of interrogation and presentation 

    Rule 612. Writing or other item used to refresh memory 

    Rule 613. Prior statements of witnesses 

    Rule 614. Calling and interrogation of witnesses by court 

    Rule 615. Sequestration of witnesses 

    ARTICLE VII. OPINIONS AND EXPERT TESTIMONY  

    Rule 701. Opinion testimony by lay witnesses 

    Rule 702. Testimony by experts 

    Rule 703. Bases of opinion testimony by experts 

    Rule 704. Opinion on ultimate issue 

    Rule 705. Disclosure of facts or data underlying expert opinion 

    Rule 706. Court appointed experts 

    ARTICLE VIII. HEARSAY

    Rule 801. Definitions 

    Rule 802. Hearsay Rule 

    Rule 803. Hearsay exceptions; availability of declarant immaterial 

    Rule 803.1. Hearsay exceptions; testimony of declarant necessary 

    Rule 804. Hearsay exceptions; declarant unavailable 

    Rule 805. Hearsay within hearsay 

    Rule 806. Attacking and supporting credibility of declarant 

    Rule 807. Residual exception [not adopted] 

    ARTICLE IX. AUTHENTICATION AND IDENTIFICATION 

    Rule 901. Requirement of authentication or identification 

    Rule 902. Self-authentication 

    Rule 903. Subscribing witness’ testimony unnecessary 

    ARTICLE X. CONTENTS OF WRITINGS, RECORDINGS, AND PHOTOGRAPHS

    Rule 1001. Definitions 

    Rule 1002. Requirement of original 

    Rule 1003. Admissibility of duplicates 

    Rule 1004. Admissibility of other evidence of contents 

    Rule 1005. Public records 

    Rule 1006. Summaries 

    Rule 1007. Testimony or written admission of party 

    Rule 1008. Functions of court and jury