A judgment is the final part of a court case. A valid judgment delivered by a court of competent jurisdiction resolves all the contested issues and terminates the lawsuit. The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and most state rules of civil procedure allow appeals only from final judgments. There are two doctrines that bar re-litigation of claims – claim preclusion and issue preclusion. The doctrine of claim preclusion provides that a final judgment on the merits is conclusive upon the parties in any later litigation involving the same cause of action. The doctrine of issue preclusion applies when a particular issue has been determined by a final judgment, and that issue cannot be re-litigated in a future judicial proceeding. The application of the two doctrines produces finality for the parties and promotes judicial economy. Parties know that when final judgment is entered and all appeals are exhausted, the case is over and the decision will be binding on all issues determined in the lawsuit.